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内地语言政策与规范研究所 语言生计 张治国:南亚邻国不丹的

BUDANWANGGUOWEIYUNEIDIHEYINDUZHIJIANXIMALAYASHANFENGDONGDUANNANPO,BEIBUHENEIDIJIAOJIE,NANBUYUYINDUWEILIN,MIANJI38394PINGFANGQIANMI。MUQIAN,ZHONGBULIANGGUOSHANGCUNBIANJIEZHENGYINANTI。ZAIQUANBULINGUOZHONG,BUDANSHIWEIYIYIGEWEIYUNEIDIJIANJIAODEGUOJIA,ZHIYOU,LIANGGUOYIZHIWEICHIYOUHAOJIAOWANG。BUDANBEIKANZUOSHINEIDIHEYINDUZHIJIANDE“HUANCHONGGUO”,SHI“YINDUQUANSHIFANWEIDEYIYIBUFEN”(Ahsan & Chakma 1993),DANBUDANZHENGZAIZOUXIANGDULIHEMINZHUHUA。BULUNHERU,ZHONGBULIANGGUODEGUANXIYUFAZHANBIDINGSHOUDAOYINDUDEYINGXIANG,TONGSHI,YEYINGXIANGYINDU(Smith 2012)。KEJIAN,BUDANJINGUANSHIXIAOGUO,DANDUIYUWOGUOXIZANGDIYUDEBIANJINGXIANANQUANXING、HULIANHUTONGJIBENJIANSHE、DIYUANZHENGZHI(geopolitics)DOUJUYOUYIDINGDEYINGXIANG。MUQIANXUEJIEDUIBUDANDEYANJIUSHOUYAOJIZHONGHUAZAIDUJIALVYOUHUANBAO(LIRU,HUIMING 2004)、XINGFULINIAN(LIRU,ZHANBIWANDENG 2013)、MINZUZONGJIAO(LIRU,ZHANGSIQI 2003)、LISHIFAZHAN(LIRU,LANGUOHUA 2004)、WENHUAYISHUJIAOYUXIANZHUANG(LIRU,LUYUNDENG 2013;FULANKE·LEINIDENG 2013)YIJIGUOJIXINGNANTI(LIRU,LIUJIAN 2006;YANGSILING、GAOHUIPING 2006;ZHALUO 2009)DENGFANGMIAN,XIANJIANGUANYUBENGUOYUYANSHENGTAIJIYUYANZHENGCEDEYANJIU,GUBENWENNIZAIZHEIFANGMIANZUOXIESHIZHEXINGDEZONGSHUYUFENXI。

一、语言生态及语言政策的基础理论基本

HAOGEN(Haugen 1972)BAYUYANSUOCHUDEZIRANHUANJINGCHENGWEIYUYANSHENGTAI(language ecology),“ZHEISHIYIGEBUCUODEXINGRONG”(BONADE·SIBOSIJI 2011:8)。YUYANSUOCHUDEZIRANHUANJINGBAOHAN“SHEHUIZIRANHUANJING”(social environment)、“ZIRANZIRANHUANJING”(natural environment)HE“XINLIZIRANHUANJING”(psychological environment)(Haugen 1972:325)。“SHEHUIZIRANHUANJING”BAOHANYUYANZONGSHU、RENKOUZONGSHU、MINZU、ZONGJIAO、ZHENGZHI、JINGJIDENGTIAOMU,“ZIRANZIRANHUANJING”BAOKUODILIWEIZHI、DONGZHIWU、QIHOUDENGTIAOMU,ER“XINLIZIRANHUANJING”ZEZHIWOMENDEYUYANTAIDUJIYUYANQUSHE,RUSHUANGYANSHUANGYU(BAOHANDUOYANDUOYU)RENDUIZIJIYUKU(linguistic repertoire)ZHONGMOUYIYUYAN、BIANTIHUOFANGYANDETAIDUJIQUSHE。“DUIYUYANJIQISUOCHUZIRANHUANJINGZHIJIANHUDONGGUANXIDEYANJIU”ZESHIYUYANSHENGTAIXUE(Haugen 1972:325)。HAOGENJUEDEYUYANXIANGSHENGWUYIYANGJUBEIXINGMING,YOUSHENGYOUSI,DANYUYANDEXINGMINGQUJUEYUYUYANDEYINGYONGZHE,ERYUYANDEYINGYONGZHEZEYINCIHUITONGGUOYUYANSUOCHUDEZIRANHUANJINGLAIZUOCHUGUANYUYUYANQUSHEDEJUEDING。

KUPA(Cooper 1989)JUEDE,YUYANZHENGTIGUIHUAHUOYUYANZHENGCEBAOHANDIWEIZHENGTIGUIHUA、BENTIZHENGTIGUIHUAHEXIDEZHENGTIGUIHUASANYIBUFEN。YUYANDEDIWEIZHENGTIGUIHUAJIUSHIHUADINGYUYANDEGONGYONG(RUZHIDINGGUOYU、GUANFANGWANGYUYANDENG),QUERENYUYANDEDIWEI,SHIDETAMENGEANQIWEI,GESIQIZHI。YUYANBENTIZHENGTIGUIHUAZESHIFAZHANYUYANDEWENBENHUA、GUIZEHUAHEXIANDAIHUA。XIDEZHENGTIGUIHUA,“YEJIUSHIDAJIAYIBANSUOSHUODEYUYANWENHUAYISHUJIAOYUZHENGCE”(BONADE·SIBOSIJI 2011:55),QISHOUYAOTIAOMUSHIQUERENKETANGJIAOXUEMEIJIEYU(medium of instruction)YIJIZHENGTIGUIHUAGAIGUOYUYANJIWAIYUDEWENHUAYISHUJIAOYU。

YUYANSHENGTAIXUEGAOSURENMEN,YUYANBUSHIGULIWUYUANDEXIANXIANG,YUYANZHENGCEJIZHENGTIGUIHUADEZHIDING、SHIXINGYULIJIEDOUBIXUMANZUDAODAOYUYANSUOCHUDEZIRANHUANJING(Mühlhäusler 2000)。

二、不丹的语言生态

JIANYUYUYANSHENGTAIZHONG“XINLIZIRANHUANJING”DEFANZAXING,BENWENDUIBUDANYUYANSHENGTAIDEYANJIUSHOUYAOJIZHONGHUAZAIYUYANSUOCHUDE“SHEHUIZIRANHUANJING”JI“ZIRANZIRANHUANJING”SHANG。

(一)人口总数、宗教、民族和语言

体球网JIEZHI2014NIAN,BUDANDERENKOUZONGSHUSHUMUDAZHIWEI74WAN(World Population Review 2014),SHIQUANQIUSHANGRENKOUZONGSHUMIDUZUIXIAODEGUOJIAZHIYI。BUDANSHIYIGEQUANMINXINJIAODEGUOJIA,DAZHI75% DERENXINYANGFOJIAO(JIZANGCHUANFOJIAO)HEYUANSHIZONGJIAO,25%DEREN(SHOUYAOZAINANFANG)XINYANGYINDUJIAO。BUDANSHIYIGEDUOMINZUGUOJIA(Giri 2004),GONGYOUERSANSHIGEMINZU,DAGAISHANGKEFENWEIYIXIASIDALEI:DIYISHIBUDANZU,YOUCHENGNALONGZU(Ngalong/Ngalop,YIWEI“XIANLAIZHE”),YEYIALUOZUHUOELANGZU,TAMENSHI9SHIJINEIDIZANGZUYIMINDEHOUSHI,GUCHENGWEIBOTEREN(Bhote,YIWEI“ZANGREN”),QISHENGJIXISURENGYUZANGRENXIANGSI,TAMENDAYIBUFENDOUDINGJUZAIBUDANXIBUHEZHONGBUDIYU,ZAIBUDANDEZHENGZHI、ZONGJIAO、RENKOUZONGSHUHEYUYANDENGFANGMIANDOUZHANZHUDAODIWEI,YINGYONGZONGKAYU(Dzongkha/Ngalobikha)JIQIDUOZHONGBIANTI。DIERSHISHAQIAOPUZU(Sharchop,YIWEI“DONGBUREN”),SHOUYAODINGJUZAIBUDANDONGBUHEXINANBUDIYU,YINGYONGSHAQIAOPUYU(Sharchopikha),HUOCHENGCANGLAYU(Tshangla)。YISHANGLIANGDALEIMINZUDERENKOUZONGSHUHEQILAIYUEZHANQUANGUOXINGZONGRENKOUZONGSHUDE50%。DISANSHINIBOERZU(Nepalis),YOUCHENGLUOSHAMUPAZUHUOLUOCHANGZU(Lhotshampa,YIWEI“NANBUREN”),TAMENSHI1864NIANYINGGUOYUBUDANZHANZHENGHOUGANGKAISHIQIANJUBUDANDE,DANDAJINGYINGGUIMOCONGNIBOERQIANRUHAISHIZAI20SHIJILIUQISHINIANDAI,SHOUYAODINGJUZAIBUDANNANBUHEDONGNANBUDIYU,ZHANBUDANRENKOUZONGSHUDE35%ZUOYOU,YINGYONGNIBOERYU(Nepali),YOUCHENGLUOCHANGYU(Lhotshamkha)。DISISHITUZHURENJIBIEDEQIANJUZHE,SANJUZAIQUANGUOXINGGEDI,YUEZHANQUANGUOXINGRENKOUZONGSHUDE15%,YINGYONGZHEGEZIDETUZHUYUYAN(Brown & Mayhew 2014;CIA 2015)。

(二)全国性语言概况