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土库曼斯坦缘何成为“永久中立国”

今年12月12日,土库曼斯坦将迎来得到永久中立地位20周年留念日,举国上下左右将举办隆重举行的庆贺主题活动。土方邀请内地、哈萨克斯坦等周边國家领导干部人和协同国秘书长潘基文等國家和国际性组织领导干部人出席。习近平主席特使、内地國家副主席李源潮将应邀出席。土库曼斯坦为何要这般隆重举行地留念这一時刻?这还得从土库曼斯坦的独立谈起。

土库曼斯坦意为“土库曼人的地皮”,地处中亚腹地,东邻乌兹别克斯坦,南与伊朗、阿富汗交界,西临里海,北边是哈萨克斯坦,国土80%被卡拉库姆大荒漠覆盖。土库曼斯坦地理位置独一无二,是中亚、南亚、西亚的交汇处,历史上曾被波斯、阿拉伯、蒙古、沙俄等帝国统治。1991年苏联瓦解,土库曼斯坦成为独立主权國家。独立伊始,土库曼斯坦应该走一条什么样的发展道路?这是摆在首任总统尼亚佐夫和土库曼国民眼前最紧迫的难题。在國家基本建设中,土库曼斯坦依托其丰厚的油气资源力争发展经济,国民生计程度连续不停提升,刚开始走上强盛之路。而在对外政策中,土库曼斯坦取舍了永久中立。1995年12月12日,通过俄罗斯、法国、美国、内地、土耳其、伊朗等25国共同提案,第50届联全集票根据《有关土库曼斯坦永久中立决议》。土库曼斯坦成为二战后第一个、也是目前惟一一个以联大决议模式被国际性社会广泛承认的永久中立国。土库曼斯坦也将12月12日定为“永久中立日”。

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